Saturday, May 23, 2020

Lines of Longitude in Geography

Longitude is the angular distance of any point on Earth measured east or west of a point on Earths surface. Where Is Zero Degrees Longitude? Unlike latitude, there is no easy point of reference such as the equator to be designated as zero degrees in the longitude system. To avoid confusion, the worlds nations have agreed that the Prime Meridian, which passes through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, will serve as that reference point and be designated as zero degrees. Because of this designation, longitude is measured in degrees west or east of the Prime Meridian. For example, 30Â °E, the line passing through eastern Africa, is an angular distance of 30Â ° east of the Prime Meridian. 30Â °W, which is in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, is an angular distance of 30Â ° west of the Prime Meridian. There are 180 degrees east of the Prime Meridian and coordinates are sometimes given without the designation of E or east. When this is used, a positive value represents coordinates east of the Prime Meridian. There are also 180 degrees west of the Prime Meridian and when W or west is omitted in a coordinate a negative value such as -30Â ° represents coordinates west of the Prime Meridian. The 180Â ° line is neither east nor west and approximates the International Date Line. On a map (diagram), lines of longitude are the vertical lines running from the North Pole to the South Pole and are perpendicular to lines of latitude. Every line of longitude also crosses the equator. Because longitude lines are not parallel, they are known as meridians. Like parallels, meridians name the specific line and indicate the distance east or west of a 0Â ° line. Meridians converge at the poles and are farthest apart at the equator (about 69 miles (111 km) apart). Development and History of Longitude For centuries, mariners and explorers worked to determine their longitude in an effort to make navigation easier. Latitude was determined easily by observing the inclination of the sun or the position of known stars in the sky and calculating the angular distance from the horizon to them. Longitude could not be determined in this way because Earths rotation constantly changes the position of stars and the sun. The first person to offer a method for measuring longitude was the explorer Amerigo Vespucci. In the late 1400s, he began measuring and comparing the positions of the moon and Mars with their predicted positions over several nights at the same time (diagram). In his measurements, Vespucci calculated the angle between his location, the moon, and Mars. By doing this, Vespucci got a rough estimate of longitude. This method did not become widely used however because it relied on a specific astronomical event. Observers also needed to know the specific time and measure the moon and Mars positions on a stable viewing platform- both of which were difficult to do at sea. In the early 1600s, a new idea to measure longitude was developed when Galileo determined that it could be measured with two clocks. He said that any point on Earth took 24 hours to travel the full 360Â ° rotation of Earth. He found that if you divide 360Â ° by 24 hours, you find that a point on Earth travels 15Â ° of longitude every hour. Therefore, with an accurate clock at sea, a comparison of two clocks would determine longitude. One clock would be at the home port and the other on the ship. The clock on the ship would need to be reset to local noon each day. The time difference would then indicate the longitudinal difference traveled as one hour represented a 15Â ° change in longitude. Shortly thereafter, there were several attempts to make a clock that could accurately tell time on the unstable deck of a ship. In 1728, clockmaker John Harrison began working on the problem and in 1760, he produced the first marine chronometer called Number 4. In 1761, the chronometer was tested and determined to be accurate, officially making it possible to measure longitude on land and at sea. Measuring Longitude Today Today, longitude is more accurately measured with atomic clocks and satellites. The Earth is still divided equally into 360Â ° of longitude with 180Â ° being east of the Prime Meridian and 180Â ° west. Longitudinal coordinates are divided into degrees, minutes and seconds with 60 minutes making up a degree and 60 seconds comprising a minute. For example, Beijing, Chinas longitude is 116Â °2330E. The 116Â ° indicates that it lies near the 116th meridian while the minutes and seconds indicate just how close it is to that line. The E indicates that it is that distance east of the Prime Meridian. Although less common, longitude can also be written in decimal degrees. Beijings location in this format is 116.391Â °. In addition to the Prime Meridian, which is the 0Â ° mark in todays longitudinal system, the International Date Line is also an important marker. It is the 180Â ° meridian on the opposite side of the Earth and is where the eastern and western hemispheres meet. It also marks the place where each day officially begins. At the International Date Line, the west side of the line is always one day ahead of the east side, no matter what time of day it is when the line is crossed. This is because the Earth rotates east on its axis. Longitude and Latitude Lines of longitude or meridians are the vertical lines running from the South Pole to the North Pole. Lines of latitude or parallels are the horizontal lines running from the west to the east. The two cross each other at perpendicular angles and when combined as a set of coordinates they are extremely accurate in locating places on the globe. They are so accurate that they can locate cities and even buildings to within inches. For example, the Taj Mahal, located in Agra, India, has a coordinate set of 27Â °1029N, 78Â °232E. To view the longitude and latitude of other places, visit the collection of Locate Places Worldwide resources on this site.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Newspaper as a Reliable Source of News and Information Free Essays

NEWSPAPER AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF NEWS AND INFORMATION: The newspapers most notable contribution as a mass communication medium has been as a purveyor of information. Many people doubted if newspapers could fight off the challenge posed by radio and television – both being immediate and more entertaining, but they have fought this challenge and have survived and are going strong due to the following reasons: 1. Newspapers offer detailed accounts which is not possible with radio and television. We will write a custom essay sample on Newspaper as a Reliable Source of News and Information or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2. The printed word carries a lot of credibility than the spoken words of radio and tv. . Also while one has to wait for news bulletins on radio and tv, one can read it anytime he wants. Here time is not a constraint. A newspaper’s coverage of meetings and events, investigative journalism that uncovers important issues and strong opinion pieces that offer points of view and courses of action are often the starting point of discussion within a community. As recorders of activities large and small within the community, as the community’s watchdog and often spokesperson, a newspaper plays a crucial role in day-to-day life in every city, town and community in the country. As a keeper of the stories of a community, the newspaper is there at the start, and the finish, and remains the only effective instrument for such record-keeping. As they begin their search for an important household item, consumers usually turn to the pages of the newspaper to study advertisements and promotions placed by local merchants. When planning trips, readers turn to the newspaper for information about possible destinations, accommodations and other travel information. When looking for a new home or attempting to sell their present house, people find the pages of the newspaper the best place to start. The classified section of any newspaper is the first source for people looking for employment. For some people, their first field trip in school is a visit to the newspaper, and for information for a school project on current events, their first stop is the newspaper or, now, the newspaper’s site on the World Wide Web. Many people develop a lifelong love of reading by picking up a newspaper each day to find out about the important news, follow the progress of their favorite teams, check out the views of a top columnist or to read their favorite comics. The habit of reading the newspaper is an important step in building literacy skills, as well a keeping a person well-informed on the issues of the day. A good newspaper offers something for everyone, whether it is coverage of an election race, reports from council and school board meetings, display or classified advertising, and opinion writing that educates and excites the reader. Thus newspapers are your source of reliable information in a world overloaded with the unreliable. How to cite Newspaper as a Reliable Source of News and Information, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Business Performance of Leadership

Question: Discuss about the Business Performance of Leadership. Answer: Introduction Choi and Kim (2014) opined that leadership is the capability of the management of a company to make vital decisions, inspire as well as motivate others to perform their work in the workplace. Effective leaders can set as well as achieve challenging goals, take decisions at difficult situations, calculate the risks as well as persist in the face of failure. The characteristics of a good leader are to manage the workplace, have communication skills as well as self-confidence. However, the IT leaders are different from other leaders. Loveridge (2014) argued that the IT leadership is the group of the senior executives those are responsible for implementing an IT infrastructure as well as applications that can drive the IT business strategies. The report is based on the leadership in the IT business of Australia and its importance for the business. The selected organization for this report is Melbourne IT. It reflects on the impact of the leadership on the success of the IT business. Leadership style is also discussed in this report for the IT leader. As the business is based on Information Technology, therefore the leader face IT challenges in their business, and respective solutions are also given. Impact of leadership on the success of the IT business Australian IT businesses are facing innovation shortfalls and failure in the development of the leadership programs. The selected IT business for the report is Melbourne IT and as the leader of the business, different leadership functions are conducted. Melbourne IT is an Australian Internet company with its primary business is the registration of the domain name. This IT business also provides the web as well as email hosting services as well as online marketing services to the Australian population (Melbourneit.com.au 2015). When it comes to achieving business success, most of the leaders of the organization think of a strategy which most of the business comes up with. The following are some of the quality traits that should be there within a good leader who leads an IT business organization: Character: The leader requires to be trusted as well as known to live their life with honesty (Katsos and Fort 2016). As in the current era, technology becomes the most vital needs of the population; therefore, the leaders should do the delivery of the IT services from respect for the good character as well as trustworthiness of the person who leads the business. Communicate: In order to reach new benchmarks of achievement, it is required an art of clear communication (Anvari et al. 2014). With good communication skills, the leaders are also required good listening skills that help to drive results and hear to the employees. As a leader of the organization, it is the responsibility to respond to the employees concern and questions. Direction: The leader can work to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. As a leader of an IT business organization, the leader can create impressive change within the organization as the use of technology changes day-by-day (Harney 2016). The leader can act according to the needs and requirements of their customers and provides with better IT service delivery. Optimistic: The leaders are the source of the positive energy. They are helpful as well as concern for others welfare (Almog-Bareket 2012). In order to avoid personal criticism, they start to gain the consensus of the employees to work effectively as team members. Honesty: The leader should be ethical, believable; honesty as well as reliability forms the foundation of the business success (Marco and John 2013). In order to avoid conflicts, the leader shares information openly to the employees. Leadership Style in an IT leader Transformational Leadership Style An IT leader encompasses of two various types of leadership styles such as transformational as well as transactional. The transformational leadership inspires the followers by raising consciousness about the specified values and motivates the followers in order to address the high level of personal needs (Minavand 2013). As this particular report is based on an IT business organization, Melbourne IT, therefore this style of leadership plays an important role as the leader works with the subordinates in order to identify the required changes and create an organizational vision in order to guide changes through inspiration. As a transformational leadership style, the leader is focused on increasing the effectiveness of the organization. This style of leadership stresses that the leader understands as well as adapts to the followers motives as well as requirements (Brandt and Uusi-Kakkuri 2016). An IT leader has the responsibility to achieve good role models who can empower the staff me mbers in order to achieve higher standards. In the last few years, many transformational changes are taken place in technology. As for example, the development of computing technology by Apple, Intel was the transformational events that are taken place. Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple transformed their business processes through the software applications as well as high-speed microprocessors. At Apple, Steve Jobs is seen as a leader who has an idealistic vision to provide computers as a tool to change the world (Davenport 2014). Jobs were passionate about the company as well as enthusiastic about the announcements of products. Figure 1: Transformational Leadership Style (Source: Minavand 2013, pp-47) Transactional Leadership Style Apart from this leadership style, another type of style is transactional leadership that focuses on the exchange, which occurs between the leaders as well as followers. The leader can have a concern with maintaining the normal flow of the business operations (Minelle 2014). Disciplinary powers, as well as an array of incentives, are used to motivate the employees to work. This style of leadership conforms to the existing structure of the IT business as well as measures success as per the organizational system of rewards as well as penalties (Antonakis and House 2014). Performance review is required to judge the performance of the employee. Steve Jobs also acts a transactional leader who directs their efforts through tasks as well as structures. Steve influenced the employees for a strong desire to work, shared their passion with the staffs as well as provided with the organizational vision (Moors 2012). The leadership style of Steve Jobs is desired to create great products that would give enjoy to the clients by using it rather than the products that bring profit to Apple. Figure 2: Characteristics of Transactional Leadership Style (Source: Minelle 2014, pp-47) Both this style of leadership is required to guide the Melbourne IT to success. The transactional leader provides with an ability to address small operational details that on the other hand, the transformational leader is crucial to the strategic development of the business. Apart from this, the transactional approach features both positive as well as negative enforcement while the transformational leadership features both motivation as well as inspiration (Salovaara and Bathurst 2016). Transactional leadership appeals to the self-interest of the individuals, and transformational leadership focuses on the group progress. Challenges that IT leader is facing There are various challenges that the IT leaders are facing in Melbourne IT business organization: Rate and pace of change: According to Moore's law, the doubling of the speed of the computer processing takes place every 18 months. It is one of the manifestations of the technological trend that all the changes occur at exponential rates (Sethuraman and Suresh 2014). Due to the exponential rate of change in the technology, the IT leader is also making changes according to the business requirements. This rapid change in the business affects the leadership quality. Complexity in the integration of the system: Sometimes, change in the system becomes complex. Therefore, the leader is not able to cope up with the complex situation, and it affects their responsibility as a leader (Brandt and Uusi-Kakkuri 2016). Due to rapid change in the technology, the IT department of the company requires changing their IT infrastructure in order to meet the requirements of their clients. Ongoing pressure to cut the cost: Due to rapid change in the technology, the implementation of the new system requires more cost and budget. Therefore, it becomes a vital task for the leader to implement the new system within the estimated budget. The threat to cyber security: Cyber attack is the most vital concern for the IT leader as there is a high risk of threat of hacking of the information from the database system (Ali Shurbagi 2014). The main function of the IT leader is to give high-security measures to the client's information so that any third party person cannot access it. Solutions to the IT challenges for the leader In order to exploit the technology as well as information is fast becoming a prerequisite for the leadership programs. The IT leaders must help the company to value their business as possible from the technology (Sethuraman and Suresh 2014). The following are the solutions that the leader should follow to have a great role in technology decisions and cope up with IT challenges as: Information Technology Leadership Development Program: It is one of the best solutions for the IT leader to change their character according to the change in technology (Antonakis and House 2014). This program takes the IT leader in the IT application management, operations, technical services as well as IT planning for Melbourne IT. The development program gives a full-time position to the leader with benefits as well as design in order to create a sustainable career path with Melbourne IT. The building of strategic IT leadership skills: A strong IT leaders can create a clear vision for the future, a design of the competitive strategy for the business; create an agile as well as flexible culture for Melbourne IT. Consultation with the IT business analyst to develop a new existing system for the business: Due to change in the technology, the business leader can develop and implement a new legacy system for their organization with the help of the IT business analyst (Salovaara and Bathurst 2016). With consulting their ideas with the analyst, they can implement such a system that should be beneficial for the organization in the future. Take the ownership of information: The vital part of managing the information technology is to manage the data quality as well as accessibility (Marco and John 2013). The IT business leader is responsible for the usability of the data gathered as well as stored in the technology and service. The IT providers should have required integration capabilities, but the leader does managing the information. Improve the technology vendor management capabilities: Technology vendors can double contract value when they are circumventing to the IT. The IT business leaders can also look in order to corporate IT for guidance as well as support with the vendor negotiations (Antonakis and House 2014). One of the techniques to nudge in this direction is to measure the effectiveness of the vendor management as well as negotiations. Conclusion It is concluded that the IT leader must be self-achiever, and they are motivated to become a proactive leader. Rapid change in the technology produces a chaos situation of the leader, and they must be ready to cope up with the technological change. In this report, two types of leaders are used such as a transactional style of leaders such as they used to motivate through the system of rewards as well as penalties. The managers use this style and it is focused on the basic management process to control, organize as well as do short-term planning. The leader can act as indicated by the necessities and prerequisites of their clients and offers with better IT administration delivery. As a transformational leadership style, the leader is engaged to build the adequacy of the Association. This style of initiative anxieties that the leader comprehends and additionally adjusts to the followers thought processes and necessities. The transformational leadership inspires the followers by raising consciousness about the predefined values and inspires the supporters to address the high state of individual needs. Therefore, these two types of leadership style are to be in an IT business leader. References Ali Shurbagi, A., 2014. The Relationship between Transformational Leadership Style Job Satisfaction and the Effect of Organizational Commitment.IBR, 7(11). Almog-Bareket, G., 2012. Visionary leadership in business schools: an institutional framework.Journal of management development,31(4), pp.431-440. Antonakis, J. and House, R., 2014. Instrumental leadership: Measurement and extension of transformationaltransactional leadership theory.The Leadership Quarterly, 25(4), pp.746-771. Anvari, R., Irum, S., Shah, I., Mahmoodzadeh, N. and Ashfaq, M., 2014. Determinants of Information Technology Leadership Program.Review of European Studies, 6(2). Brandt, T. and Uusi-Kakkuri, P., 2016. Transformational Leadership and Communication Style of Finnish CEOs.Communication Research Reports, 33(2), pp.119-127. Choi, S.I. and Kim, D.I., 2014. A Study on The Effect Business Performance of Leadership on Global Corporate.Journal of Digital Convergence,12(10), pp.191-199. Davenport, B., 2014. From A to Google: How Technology Is Impacting Information and Leadership.Journal of Leadership Studies, 8(2), pp.41-45. Harney, B., 2016. Book review: Developing leadership: Questions business schools dont ask.Management Learning. Katsos, J. and Fort, T., 2016. Leadership in the promotion of peace: Interviews with the 2015 Business for Peace honorees.Business Horizons. Loveridge, R., 2014. Leadership in the Innovative Organization.Nang Yan Business Journal, 1(1). Marco, R. and John, F., 2013. The role of need for achievement in self-leadership: Differential associations with hope for success and fear of failure.African Journal of Business Management, 5(20), pp.8368-8375. Melbourneit.com.au, 2015.Melbourne IT. [online] Melbourneit.com.au. Available at: https://www.melbourneit.com.au/about-us/ [Accessed 5 Jul. 2016]. Minavand, H., 2013. The impact of project managers leadership style on employees job satisfaction, performance and turnover.IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 11(6), pp.43-49. Minelle, F., 2014. Business Leadership for IT Projects.PROJECT MANAGER (IL), (17), pp.47-47. Moors, G., 2012. The effect of response style bias on the measurement of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership.European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 21(2), pp.271-298. Salovaara, P. and Bathurst, R., 2016. Power-with leadership practices: An unfinished business.Leadership. Sethuraman, K. and Suresh, J., 2014. Effective Leadership Styles.IBR, 7(9).

Monday, March 23, 2020

Deployment of Firewall and Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems

The combination of hardware and software that selectively allows communication between a computer and a network is known as a firewall (Fithen, Allen Stoner, 1999). It inspects the traffic during a network communication and blocks or permits passage depending on a given set of rules. The term Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPS) refers to both Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Deployment of Firewall and Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Intrusion Detection is a process of monitoring the activities occurring in a computer network and determining if they are in violation of standard security policies. The software that automatically carries out the process is known as IDS. IPS is able to carry out the intrusion detection process and can try to stop the intrusion/violation (Scarfone Mell, 2007). Various firewall arrangements can be used for multitier applications accessible from the World Wide Web and from an internal network. Multitier web applications of moderate complexity are segmented into three tiers. The first tier is made up of the presentation components that are accessible directly by end users. The second tier is composed of middleware components that execute the end users’ requests. End users cannot access them directly. The third tier consists of data components. They are the most sensitive and are hosted by databases or directory servers. Firewall deployment is based on three strategies. The first strategy is the single firewall strategy, which is used to protect all the three tiers from the internet and internal network. All the communication going in and out of the three tiers goes through a single firewall. The firewall offers equal protection to all the servers but can subdivide the network into different subnets and offer different protectio n level to the subnets. Firewall in series strategy is whereby several firewalls are deployed to eliminate reliance on a single firewall. The firewalls are deployed one behind another and therefore the more sensitive tiers are behind more firewalls. For example, the data components tier would be behind both the firewall protecting it and the one protecting the middleware components and presentation components. The last strategy is the hybrid strategy, which uses only two firewalls. Either presentation servers and middleware servers or data servers and middleware servers are grouped together. Although two tiers are grouped together, they remain under dedicated subnets. In the first grouping, presentation servers and middleware servers are behind one firewall while data servers are behind two firewalls. All firewall arrangements are on the internal side of a router.Advertising Looking for essay on it? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn Mo re IPS is always deployed inlinewhile IDS can be deployed inline or out-of-band. When connected out-of-band, it uses a hub, a spanning port or a network tap. Deploying both ISP and IDS is more beneficial and to do this, a router must be introduced. The IPS is connected on the external side of the router and the IDS is connected in internal side of the router either inline or out-of-band (Pappas, 2008). The IDS placed on the inside section of the edge router allows analyzing of communication within the internal network. The use of firewalls and IDPS is beneficial. Firewalls block network traffic that may be violating the security policy of an organization. Such traffic may include viruses, spam, email bombs and unwanted material. IDPS detect and stop malicious incidents that would compromise security of a given computer system. They can detect when an attacker has compromised the system and stop suspicious file transfers. By identifying reconnaissance activities, they can prevent e minent future attacks. Reference List Fithen, W.L., Allen, J.H. Stoner, E., (2008). Deploying firewalls. Software Engineering Institute. Web. Pappas, N. (2008). Network IDS and IPS deployment strategies. SANS institute. Web. Scarfone, K., Mell, P. (2007). Guide to intrusion detection and prevention systems(IDPS). Computer security resource center. Web. This essay on Deployment of Firewall and Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems was written and submitted by user Mia Butler to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Economies of Scope and the Modern Technology

Economies of Scope and the Modern Technology Introduction: Economies of Scope as an Object of the Research The role of economics of scope has increased considerably since recently, which presupposes that the changes occurred in the given sphere should be considered closer and analyzed to understand the methods that enhanced the growing development of the given economics.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Economies of Scope and the Modern Technology specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the elements that economies of scope are comprised of, as well as the effects that the recent surge of technological development, as well as the numerous technological innovations, had on the given entrepreneurship is of major importance. It is necessary to mark that the phenomenon of economics of scope must not be confused with the one of the economies of scale. Since the two phenomena concern the same sphere yet are composed of different elements, it is required to draw th e line between the two. According to the description provided by Parkin, Powell and Matthew (2007), â€Å"a firm experiences economics of scale when an increase in its output of a good or service brings a decrease in the average total cost of producing it† (227). However, the authors mark that both the economics of scale and of scope â€Å"can lead to natural monopoly† (Parkin, Powell and Matthew 2007, p.227). It is worth marking that Parkin, Powell and Matthew (2007) emphasize the importance of technological innovations for the economies of scale: â€Å"In a period of rapid and fars In the given paper, such economics of scope are considered as the Xerox Company, the U.S. Telecommunications Industry, as well as the local exchange company and local operating company are considered. With the help of the analysis of their peculiarities and development, one can come to the conclusion concerning the companies’ strategic operations, their tactics and the way the give n economies have utilized the new technologies that were at their disposal. However, it is important to mark the opportunities that each company had before the implementation of the technological changes. It is worth marking that Xerox Co. is one of the businesses that is developing rapidly and, hence, requires expanding, creating affiliates and managing them successfully. Speaking of the other sphere of economies of scope that are considered in the given paper, the one concerning the telecommunication issues, it is necessary to explain that in the given sphere, â€Å"the existence of economies of scope remains an important but ambiguous issue† (Banker et al 1998, p.254). Therefore, differences in the development of the given companies predetermine the complexity of the analysis, making the latter considerably objective, though. Tracking the Progress: The Role of the Technologies It is worth mentioning that in the companies under the considerations, the technological, innovat ions introduced have played quite different roles despite such common feature as the fact that the companies in question both belong to the economies of scope and, hence, are supposed to develop according to a certain pattern.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Economies of Scope and the Modern Technology specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, it is worth mentioning that in the sphere of the U.S. telecommunications, the economies of scope are closely interconnected with the rapid progress of the U.S. telecommunications, yet there is no tangible connection between the two; as the authors claim, the given elements impact the same sphere of financial issues, yet the connection between the two is quite vague: â€Å"Moreover,†¦ the evidence cannot adequately disentangle the effects of two factors that both reduce unit costs – economies of scale and technological advance† (p.256). In contrast to t he given phenomenon, the economy of scale that Xerox Co. represents offers rather substantial reasons for implementing the strategy that economy of scale presupposes. Grounding their ideas and suggestions on the current state of the company’s affairs, the managers come to the conclusion that the technological innovations that have been implemented so far require the change of the company course of n economy of scope, marking that the old model of operating the company does not suit the innovations in the sphere of technologies: â€Å"In other cases, though, such a business model will not fit the circumstances of the technological or market opportunity† (p.2). Concerning the Course of Actions: Strategic Implications Analyzing the specific strategies that the given economies of scope utilize to achieve the maximum efficiency and decrease the costs that they suffer, one must mark that each of the given entrepreneurships has chosen it sown pace and model of development, wh ich calls for another comparison on the efficiency of the given approaches. Nevertheless, it is necessary to comment on the strategic implications themselves first. Observing the specifics of the strategic implications that the economies of scale presuppose for the given companies, one can come to the conclusion that with the help of the strategies chosen by the companies, a rapid increase in the revenues is about to occur.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Because of the improvement of the technological issues, the companies in question are able to process the queries and complete the tasks several times faster; in addition, the surge of the income and the decrease of the raw materials used for the production of the goods of the given companies allows the latter to develop further, thus, creating sufficient grounds for the future expansion, the international partnership and even the â€Å"evolution of future industry structure†(Banker et al 1998, p.254). The Related Concepts: Discussing the Commercial Integrity Obviously, the issue of economies of scope and the technological innovations tat trigger the latter cannot be considered alone, since there is a number of factors dependent on the aforementioned economies, and, vice versa, the given corporations depend considerably on the issues intertwined with the problem of providing innovations in the sphere of economic and business. Crating the specific environment for the developme nt of the given ventures, one can claim with certainty that the success of the entrepreneurship follows immediately, which means that the elements of the environment that the companies in question operate in must be considered thoroughly. Introducing the peculiar details, one will be able to see the related concepts that contribute to building a successful business. Among the concepts of the kind, the commercial integrity takes the first place. As Chesbrough and Rosembloom (2002) say, â€Å"some scholars conclude that firms may indeed develop the ability to manage new technological opportunities effectively if they invest in integrative capabilities†¦, ambidextrous internal processes†¦, or complementary assets† (p.5), hence, emphasizing the necessity to create the commercial integrity of the economies in question. Hence, the integrity of the U.S. telecommunication companies cannot be doubted at the moment, which obviously leads to the prosperity of the latter, where as Xerox Corporation seems to have problems concerning the integrity of the company (Banker et al 1998), which triggers certain concerns for the company future. Hence, the integrity of the economies of scope is essential for the well-being of the latter. Conclusions: Economies of Scope: The Importance of Technologies Development Judging from the research conducted and the data obtained, one can come to the conclusion that in most cases, the transition to the development of economies of scope is predetermined by the necessity to implement certain technological changes and offer various innovations into the company. Therefore, the transition to the strategies of economies of scope can be considered a natural course of events for major companies like Xerox or the U.S. Telecommunications. With the help of the strategies that the acceptance of the economies of scope presupposes, Xerox and the U.S. Telecommunications can develop into larger corporations, keeping their integrity and creati ng the environment auspicious for further improvements and progress. Executive Summary In the modern world of economics, the aspect of technological innovations plays one of the major roles. Providing an efficient operation of companies, facilitating the work of the employees and simplifying the working process in general and certain operations in particular, the technological aspect is one of the prior issues in the sphere of economies of scope. Hence, the scale of the recent technological innovations, as well as their impact on the modern economies of scope, is to be considered. In addition, the general features of the modern examples of economies of scope are to be observed as well. Narrowing the research to featuring the peculiarities of several entrepreneurships, the strategies chosen by them, the tactics the businesses in question implement and the goals that they pursue, as well as analyzing the commercial integrity within the companies in question, one can come to certain co nclusions concerning the methods in which the modern economies of scope are operated and the issues that arise on certain stages of the development of the given economies. Hence, the general assessment of the current situation in the sphere of economies of scope can be conducted. With the help of the specific methods of research, precise data can be obtained, a thorough analysis can be conducted, and cohesive conclusions can be made. In the given paper, several companies that represent the economies of scope and utilize the correspondent elements their corporation strategy are going to be considered, their recent technological innovations are going to be enumerated, and the changes that have occurred in the given companies are going to be analyzed. It is important to mark that the given research focuses on the technological innovations used in the process of operating the economies of scope, and argues that for the economies of scope, the recent technological innovations can be cons idered as an efficient means of tackling certain entrepreneurship issues, namely, the ones concerning the efficiency of the company, the quality of the products and the efficiency of the staff. Therefore, the given paper claims that the current technologies are to be incorporated for an efficient implementation of the strategies of the economies of scope. In addition, the issues concerning the technological sphere are to be considered in the paper. Moreover, the social complexities are to be taken into account. Conducting an extensive observation of the given entrepreneurships, the paper offers profound conclusions. Bibliography Banker, D.R., Chang, H.-H., and Majumdar, S.K. 1998, â€Å"Economies of Scope in the U.S. Telecommunications History†, Information, Economics and Policy, vol.10, pp.253-272. Chesbrough, H., and Rosembloom, R.S. 2002, The Role of Business Model in  Capturing Value from Information: Evidence from Xerox Corporation’s Technology Spinoff Companies , Harvard Business School, Boston, MA. Parkin, M., Powell, M., and Matthews, K. 2007, Economics, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

How has inflation adversely affected social security Term Paper

How has inflation adversely affected social security - Term Paper Example The fund raising mechanism of Social Security makes it a ‘pay-as-you-go’ system and can be termed as advance-funded. In simple words, funds to this program are contributed by the people who are presently working and are utilized for the benefit of the retirees. Ohlemacher (2010) states that Social Security is funded by a 6.2 percent payroll tax, paid by workers as well as employers. The Social Security corpus is being constantly used and is being replenished at the same time. Since inception, the Social Security program has done exceedingly well and has helped the country tide over many difficult situations. Till date, it remains one of the most successful and most popular programs in the United States which has touched the lives of millions of Americans. Vernon (2011) reveals that as of January 1, 2011, the Social Security trust fund stood at $2.6 trillion. At the end of 2010, close to 54 million people were beneficiaries of this program, while another 157 million peopl e had earnings covered by Social Security and paid payroll taxes. The outflow (expenditures) of the scheme stood at $713 billion while the total inflow (income) was $781 billion in 2010. Of this $664 billion was non-interest income while $117 billion was generated by way of interest. Inflation and Cost of Living Allowances There have been annual increases in Social Security benefits which try and counterbalance the adverse effects of inflation on fixed benefits. This indexing of Social Security benefits for inflation is of monumental importance because the absence of such indexing would result in the erosion of the purchasing power of the beneficiaries. Prices tend to rise over time and increase the cost of living. In such a scenario the beneficiaries would be able to purchase fewer goods and services unless the benefits rise in line with inflation. Known as Cost of Living Allowances (COLAs), these increases in Social Security benefits, based on the annual increase in consumer price s, have become an automatic annual feature of the program beginning 1975. Prior to that, such increases were accorded to the beneficiaries only when the Congress enacted a special legislation. The COLA adjustment is based on the change in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Work ­ers (CPI-W) over the last year. In periods of deflation where the CPI-W does not increase, no COLAs are announced. Change in Formula Recent reform proposals have called for changes in Social Security’s cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) formula. It has been proposed that a new ‘chained CPI’ be used instead of ‘CPI-W’ that is being used at present. The chained CPI would take into account ‘substitution purchases’ that consumers make to avoid high prices. Estimates reveal that the beneficiaries of Social Security would have to contend with smaller increases under the modified, chained CPI. Estimates reveal that the revised formula would res ult in a retiree receiving $560 less as benefits per year in the first decade. This loss in benefits would reach $984 in two decades from now. There is a section of the society that avers that the government should adopt an elderly-specific